Wei Wang
Vincent W. Zheng
Han Yu
Chunyan Miao



Most machine-learning methods focus on classifying instances whose classes have already been seen in training. In practice, many applications require classifying instances whose classes have not been seen previously. Zero-shot learning is a powerful and promising learning paradigm, in which the classes covered by training instances and the classes we aim to classify are disjoint. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of zero-shot learning. First of all, we provide an overview of zero-shot learning. According to the data utilized in model optimization, we classify zero-shot learning into three learning settings. Second, we describe different semantic spaces adopted in existing zero-shot learning works. Third, we categorize existing zero-shot learning methods and introduce representative methods under each category. Fourth, we discuss different applications of zero-shot learning. Finally, we highlight promising future research directions of zero-shot learning.